Many half-day or single-day adventure tours, particularly high-volume tours at the lower end of the adventure tourism pyramid shown in Fig. 13.1, operate directly from an urban tourist destination. The tour itself does not include any accommodation or transport, and it is the responsibility of individual participants to make their way to the tour’s starting point.
This applies, e.g., for short-duration marine tours, which can operate from a marina or a beach; or river jetboating tours, which operate directly from a dock; or balloon rides, which operate from a nominated take-off area.
The tour operator may send a minibus to collect participants from urban hotels if needed, but otherwise it is up to each participant to arrive in their own vehicle and to make their own accommodation arrangements before and after the tour. For adventure tourism products of this type, the tour product itself may not include any components of the mainstream tourism industry.
The adventure sector, however, still relies on those components; firstly because they support the infrastructure from which the tour operates, and secondly since the tour clients also make use of mainstream facilities during their holidays. For longer-duration and more inclusive adventure tours, components of mainstream tourist transport and accommodation are packaged into the adventure tour product.
The most common accommodation component is simply one or two nights’ hotel accommodation before and after the adventure component. The most common transport components are shuttles from a gateway town or airport, to the starting point for the adventure activity. Such shuttles may be by road, e.g. in a tour bus; or by air, when the tour includes a charter or other special flight arrangements either by helicopter, floatplane, or to a local landing strip.